Nanometrics is a leading provider of advanced, high-performance process control metrology and inspection systems used primarily in the fabrication of semiconductors and other solid-state devices, such as data storage components and discretes including high-brightness LEDs and power management components. Nanometrics’ automated and integrated metrology systems measure critical dimensions, device structures, overlay registration, topography and various thin film properties, including film thickness as well as optical, electrical and material properties. The company’s process control solutions are deployed throughout the fabrication process, from front-end-of-line substrate manufacturing, to high-volume production of semiconductors and other devices, to advanced wafer-scale packaging applications. Nanometrics’ systems enable advanced process control for device manufacturers, providing improved device yield at reduced manufacturing cycle time, supporting the accelerated product life cycles in the semiconductor market.
Electrochemical Capacitance Voltage (ECV) Profiler-Nanometrics
Fotonika’s solution partner Nanometrics has offers the patent-pending ECVPro.
ECVPro is the result of a total redesign that completely redefines ECV profiling. We have taken 25 years of ECV profiling experience and coupled it with 25 years of advances in instrument control technology to produce the most precise, most reproducible, most highly-automated electrochemical CV profiler ever. The ECVPro was designed, from the ground up, to eliminate all operator dependent variations in the data. All the operator has to do is set the wafer on the stage. After initial setup, the ECVPro takes care of everything else.
ECVPro introduces the first ever in-situ camera for unprecedented levels of control, ECVision™. allowing real-time imaging of the semiconductor/ electrolyte interface. Now you can see exactly what occurs at the sample surface during a measurement.
For III-Nitrides, the ECVPro GaN option extends the performance of the system for optimal profiling of GaN, InGaN and AlGaN.
Wafer Defect Inspection Systems
Nanometrics SPARK – Advanced Macro Defect Inspection System
The SPARK system offers ultra-fast inspection of semiconductor patterned and unpatterned wafers. With its Innovative ‘one-shot technology,’ the system achieves high throughput at high sensitivity, with excellent stability and proven matching performance. The system’s high throughput allows 100% wafers/lot inspection. This strategy provides significant net savings per year compared to sampling strategies with other defect inspection systems.
Particles on a-above) the polished backside of a wafer have caused a defect on b-below) the wafer’s front side. The particles raised the wafer slightly so the mask did not focus properly on the wafer during a photolithography step. Courtesy of Nanometrics.
Full wafer surface images are processed in near real-time to extract a broad range of defects. The SPARK system is sensitive to large area defects down to small defects beyond the sensitivity of traditional macro inspection systems. The platform supports a wide range of surface materials and topographies and can be used for inspection at nearly every stage of the semiconductor production flow. Additionally, CD uniformity information can be extracted on product wafers.
· 1-3 µm sensitivity @ >120 wph on patterned wafers
· 0.5 µm sensitivity @ >120 wph on unpatterned wafers
· Edge inspection capability
· Low maintenance due to no moving parts during measurement
· Smallest footprint in the industry with 5x lower cost of ownership compared to competitive inspection systems
· Optional back-side inspection
· Configurable for 200-300 mm wafers
Photoluminescence Mapping System-Nanometrics
Fotonika’s solution partner Nanometrics hasdifferent types of Photoluminescence Mapping Systems.
III-V semiconductors get excited by a laser at a wavelength above their band gap. The photon energy applied to the material will force carriers into the conductance band. Once the excitation ends, the carriers will recombine in the valence band and emit photon energy. The characteristics of these emitted photons is a signature of the material characteristics and gives information about the composition and structure of the material.
The PL signature of a material can tell you about the material properties and – if a full wafer is mapped – give critical information about reactor health, final device performance and give an early indication about the final device performance.
RPM Blue FS
The RPMBlue is the industry standard high-volume, production oriented photoluminescence mapping system. By tuning the system capabilities to your control and measurement needs for the production line, the system becomes fast and economical. It can be fitted with up to two internal and one external excitation lasers, which are typically selected according to the bandgap of your material. Three different gratings are available to match the PL wavelength and thickness fringe range. It accommodates 2” to 6” diameter wafers standard. Certain 8” wafers can be loaded as well. Robotic loading from up to 3 cassette stations is a standard option. Typical applications are peak and dominant wavelength, FWHM, PL intensity, film thickness, and surface roughness monitoring of LED, Laser, high power / high frequency device epi-structures, and many other applications based on compound semiconductors.
With its unique optical design technology, the Imperia detects and classifies yield-killing defects with the additional benefit of simultaneous state-of-the-art photoluminescence (PL) production monitoring. There are significant economic savings to be gained by more accurately predicting MOCVD reactor yield and PM schedules. Combining these two post-epitaxial metrology screening functions into a single high throughput system minimizes valuable fab space use and cassette handling time.
The Imperia definitively distinguishes yield-killing defects from nuisance defects by contrasting traditional darkfield images with the electrically active defect PL images – providing the PL process control benefits of wafer/platter uniformity and tighter binning yield.
The Vertex system is designed to deliver industry-leading accuracy, repeatability and tool-to-tool matching. It brings the PL measurement process under control so that your epitaxial process stays firmly under control.
Vertex is designed to provide accurate, precise and repeatable PL metrology across the entire wavelength range. This includes high-Al content AlGaN alloys for GaN FET’s and UV lasers to the Antimonides out in the MIR and everything in between. Vertex offers a catalogue of more than 15 standard lasers and the ability to fiber-feed a virtually unlimited array of sources. The monochromator can be fitted with up to three gratings and two array detectors — and, once configured, every optical component is selected under computer control. To ensure the highest possible wavelength accuracy, Vertex contains its own built-in spectral source for monochromator calibration.
Vertex can accommodate up to 4 internally mounted lasers. Two of those laser feature a continuously-variable power control with feedback loop. Wherever possible, we have standardized on direct delivery of the laser beam. However, large lasers can be fiber connected. For film thickness measurements, the system can be fitted with a white light source. The Vertex software now includes a Fourier Transform facility for data interpretation.
Hall Effect Measurement System-Nanometrics
Fotonika’s solution partner Nanometrics has HL5500 Hall Effect Mesaurement System. The Nanometrics HL5500 is a turn-key, high performance Hall System for the measurement of resistivity, carrier concentration and mobility in semiconductors. Modular in concept, allowing easy upgrade paths, the system is suitable for a wide variety of materials, including silicon and compound semiconductors and metal oxide films The system has both low and high resistivity measurement capabilities, with dual temperature capability and an optional cryostats extending the temperature range from below 90 K to 500 K. The computer is MicrosoftR Windows™ based.
High Volume FTIR Metrology Systems
Nanometrics QS3300 – 300mm FTIR Metrology
QS3300 is a fully automated 300mm tool for non-destructive FTIR characterization and measurement of semiconductor materials and device manufacturing. The QS3300ME system is designed to comply with I300I guidelines and has been proven in 300mm fabs throughout the world over the last 3 years.
The QS3300 measures the boron and phosphorus concentration in BPSG films, atomic hydrogen concentrations in silicon nitride passivation layers, fluorine in FSG films, epitaxial thickness, concentrations of interstitial oxygen and substitutional carbon in silicon, and trench depth monitoring in 64 and 256 MB DRAM Chips.
Unique algorithms deliver instant qualification of SOI, SiC, and other epitaxial films. Built-in intelligence extends the applicability to almost every film material imaginable.
Additionally, it is versatile enough to qualify thickness of recycled test wafers for rapid payback.
Nanometrics QS 2200 FTIR Metrology System
Specifically designed for non-destructive wafer analysis, the QS 2200 FTIR metrology system is used for the characterization and measurement of semiconductor materials as well as device manufacturing. The QS2200 model is available in two configurations.
QS2200A -Automated system with two open cassette stations
QS2200ME -Automated system with an indexer and open cassette system
The QS2200 series incorporates a universal stage, which adjusts automatically to different wafer sizes 100, 125, 150 and 200mm.
Nanometrics QS 1200 FTIR Metrology System
The QS 1200 FTIR metrology tool is a desktop system for dopant monitoring, epi thickness measurement, and other applications. QS 1200 is specifically designed for advanced semiconductor fabs performing material characterization in silicon growing and device manufacturing areas. It provides a new level of integration of the FTIR technique utilizing proven optical technology, and a manual wafer tray to accommodate SEMI standard wafers of 100, 125, 150, 200 and 300 mm diameter.
Odd shaped wafer pieces, and 2mm thick silicon slices can also be measured on the QS 1200. An available option is a single wafer mapping (r, theta) stage for all the above wafer sizes.